After Alexander's death he was defeated by Eumenes and crucified in 322 BC, but his son, Ariarathes II managed to regain the throne and maintain his autonomy against the warring Diadochi. Antigonus II, a student of Zeno of Citium, spent most of his rule defending Macedon against Epirus and cementing Macedonian power in Greece, first against the Athenians in the Chremonidean War, and then against the Achaean League of Aratus of Sicyon. He immediately initiated a series of major military reforms. Alexandria, a major center of Greek culture and trade, became his capital city. Hellenistic culture produced seats of learning throughout the Mediterranean. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his capital to Constantinople (Byzantium) in 330 ce. This culminated at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC, a crushing Roman victory in the Peloponnese that led to the destruction of Corinth and ushered in the period of Roman Greece . After the infantry stormed the palace of Babylon, a compromise was arranged – Arrhidaeus (as Philip III) should become king and should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy (as it was, becoming Alexander IV).  The Achaean League eventually included all of the Peloponnese except Sparta, while the Aetolian League expanded into Phocis. The old city-states of Greece, including great cities such as Athens, began to decline during the Hellenistic period. The major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. The end result was the complete conquest of Sicily, including its previously powerful Greek cities, by the Romans. Euclid developed proofs for the Pythagorean Theorem, for the infinitude of primes, and worked on the five Platonic solids. Moses Hadas portrayed an optimistic picture of synthesis of culture from the perspective of the 1950s, while Frank William Walbank in the 1960s and 1970s had a materialistic approach to the Hellenistic period, focusing mainly on class relations. After Alexander's conquests the region of Bithynia came under the rule of the native king Bas, who defeated Calas, a general of Alexander the Great, and maintained the independence of Bithynia. The third era of ancient Greek history was the Hellenistic Age when the Greek language and culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world. Ptolemy himself was eager to patronise the library, scientific research and individual scholars who lived on the grounds of the library.  He then began expanding his influence into Pergamene territory in Asia and crossed into Europe, fortifying Lysimachia on the Hellespont, but his expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). This led to successful revolts against Cassander's local rulers. That is why the period from 323 BC to 27 BC became known as the Hellenistic period. Celtic coinage was influenced by Greek designs, and Greek letters can be found on various Celtic coins, especially those of Southern France. Even barbarians, such as the Galatians, were depicted in heroic form, prefiguring the artistic theme of the noble savage. Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. The end of Antigonid Macedon came when Philip V's son, Perseus, was defeated and captured by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). There has been a trend in writing the history of this period to depict Hellenistic art as a decadent style, following the Golden Age of Classical Athens. Green, Peter (1990); Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age. Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. The popular philosopher Epicurus promoted a view of disinterested gods living far away from the human realm in metakosmia. The spread of Christianity throughout the Roman world, followed by the spread of Islam, ushered in the end of Hellenistic philosophy and the beginnings of Medieval philosophy (often forcefully, as under Justinian I), which was dominated by the three Abrahamic traditions: Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, and early Islamic philosophy. During the reign of the Artaxiads, Armenia went through a period of hellenization. Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period, usually taken as starting with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ending with the invasion of the Greek world by the Romans, a cycle well under way by 146 BCE when the Greek mainland was conquered, and culminating ultimately in 30 BCE with the invasion of Ptolemaic Egypt after the Battle of Actium. , Several references in Indian literature praise the knowledge of the Yavanas or the Greeks. Most of the great literary figures of the Hellenistic period studied at Alexandria and conducted research there. The third war of the Diadochi broke out because of the growing power and ambition of Antigonus. Athens fought more unsuccessful wars against Macedon with Ptolemaic aid such as the Chremonidean War. The major literary product of this cultural syncretism is the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koiné Greek. These generals became known as the Diadochi (Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors"). 323 BC-31BC), was comprised of gold. During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). The kingdom grew to its largest extent under Mithridates VI, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Lesser Armenia, the Bosporan Kingdom, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos and, for a brief time, the Roman province of Asia. One of the best sculptors of antiquity lived during this period… "Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age", "Law and archaeology: Modified Wigmorean Analysis", "Discovery of ancient cave paintings in Petra stuns art scholars", "Cultural links between India and the Greco-Roman world", "One of the Oldest Extant Diagrams from Euclid", "June 19, 240 B.C.E: The Earth Is Round, and It's This Big", The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, "The Epoch of the Constellations on the Farnese Atlas and Their Origin in Hipparchus's Lost Catalogue", "Early Astronomical 'Computer' Found to Be Technically Complex", Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies, Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition at the MET, Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies, Greece and the International Monetary Fund, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellenistic_period&oldid=998353284, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with failed verification from April 2010, Articles with failed verification from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Goodman, Martin. Getae in Wallachia and Moldavia coined Getic tetradrachms, Getic imitations of Macedonian coinage.. The Hellenistic period began with the wars of the Diadochi, armed contests among the former generals of Alexander the Great to carve up his empire in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The Illyrians: history and culture, History and Culture Series, The Illyrians: History and Culture, Aleksandar Stipčević, The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 233&236, "The Illyrians liked decorated belt-buckles or clasps (see figure 29). Much of the eastern part of the empire was then conquered by the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia in the mid-2nd century BC, yet the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by the Armenian king Tigranes the Great and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey. It led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. 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