The activity appears to be occurring close to the surface, a theory supported by surface fractures and gas emissions. The volcanologists noted that one of the primary gases present, methane, does not accumulate in the air, but disperses gas detected in town could also be due to gas stations that were buried under the lava, or to digging taking place in lava, especially to open roads between the east and west of city. At the Goma airport, buildings remain entirely intact, however the runway was partially covered. reports, United Nations officials reported that 45 people had been killed A fog of hot air and sulphurous steam hung over the burning ruins. "... the level of lava in the crater of Nyiragongo had risen dangerously, and could break out at any time. Within ten days, the entire water network of Goma should be operational. An eruption began at Nyiragongo on 17 January and, according to news Eruption aftermath: The lava has cut off routes into Goma and divided the town in two, complicating the aid effort. For hundreds of thousands of refugees, the immediate need is now to find food, water and avert disease. In places, the lava flows Aviation fuel stores exploded as the lava flow damaged Goma airport. The volcano produced three paths of lava, one of which headed toward the city of Goma, 18 kilometers to the south. Thousands remain homeless and are in need of food, health care and assistance in rebuilding their homes. People are arriving empty-handed and in need of immediate assistance. But many said they would prefer to try and rebuild in whatever was left of Goma than live on the streets of Gisenyi, swamped by families desperate for food and water, or in refugee camps the Rwandan government is planning to set up. About 1,000 tons of food aid was sitting untouched in a United Nations warehouse in Goma while thousands of people made homeless by the volcano eruption went hungry. Relief workers are scrambling to create order out of chaos after some 500,000 people fled the region hit by a huge volcanic eruption in east Africa, with at least one city devastated by lava flows. The lava cut a swathe 60 metres wide through the centre of the city and the ensuing fires burned down buildings up to 40 metres on either side. Lava destroyed about 40% of the town at the head of Lake Kivu, but on Monday the streets once again teemed with people and many shops were open. nyiragongo.com Two of the city's four hospitals, three out of the 11 health centers and 80 out of Goma's 150 pharmacies were simply buried under two meters of lava. Nyiragongo erupted at approximately 9:30 AM local time (2:30 AM EST) on January 17. Airport officials ordered all planes to fly out ahead of the advancing lava. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Around 50 people were killed when fuel exploded while they were trying to siphon it off at a petrol station. 2100 businesses destroyed; Unemployment grew to 95% from 85%; Much of runway ruined due to lava ; Social. There are unconfirmed reports of new fissures opening or existing fissures expanding in areas north of Goma, according to USAID/OFDA field reports. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The seismic activity remained relatively constant and unchanging. Population Movements: The city population is increasing as displaced people return to Goma. The lava reached speeds of 60 km/h. As seen from a Rwandan Air Force helicopter, a small black cone was forming in what had been banana grove on Congo's border with Rwanda. A field team studied in detail the system of normal faults and fractures from Monigi to the North over about 3 km. Goma is flat, black and burning after Eruption The city population is increasing as displaced people return to Goma. The families returning home from the Rwandan border town of Gisenyi, the original destination for most of those who fled Nyiragongo's fury, were as hungry, thirsty and weak as those who chose to remain behind across the frontier to await foreign aid. Press accounts indicated that volcanologists tentatively suggested that Nyiragongo's volcanism was due to seismicity producing fissures up to several km in length along the E African rift, allowing magma to reach the surface. Initial assessments indicated that up to 400,000 residents around Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), were displaced by the eruption. government and news agencies that were received during the ongoing crisis. The last recorded eruption of Mount Nyamuragira was 2014 while that of Mount Nyiragongo was recorded in 2002 up to date today it has been clear of eruption or signs of eruption. In a massive eruption that occurred on January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo sent a vast plume of smoke and ash skyward, and three swifly-moving rivers … The U.N. World Food Progamme said it was reluctant to start distributing the food in Goma because of fears of further eruptions of Mount Nyiragongo volcano. Some of the hundreds of thousands of people displaced by a volcanic eruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) began to receive their first humanitarian aid Saturday, two days after a river of lava destroyed most of their home town. Saturday 26th January 2002 More info... © John Seach. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Evacuation of more than 300,000 began only when plumes of ash and smoke were visible and lava flows were engulfing the area. They'll have to.". to the road linking Goma with Rwanda. Dozens of people are feared dead after a river of molten rock poured from a volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Saturday 19th January, 2002 (Posted 2200 UT) Sunday 20th January, 2002 The area had been experiencing tremors intermittently since March 2001. Reports of the number of deaths and injuries vary; most reports state ~45 people died, possibly as a result of remaining in their homes which burned or collapsed. A 100-m-wide delta formed where lava entered the lake. A total of ~400 people suffered from injuries including burns. By late afternoon, at Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 31, 17–31. The lava took a long time to cool and it burnt people as they tried to return to their homes. The largest earthquake to date was M 5; it struck around 1.76°S, 29.08°E at 0014 on 20 January. Case study for the 2002 Nyiragongo eruption. Cholera spread because of lack of sanitation in areas that people fled to. There are enough biscuits to feed 360,000 people for day, but this only provides a temporary solution and that the aim of the operation is to get those affected into two camps. On Jan. 4, it happened again. Simple precautions may save a lot more lives than the most sophisticated scientific equipment. daccess-ods.un.org. Meanwhile, experts warned of an explosive gas risk caused by lava flowing into Lake Kivu, which straddles the border between the DRC and Rwanda, with molten rock stirring up reserves of methane that lay dissolved in the lake. Cinder cones, dried volcanic rocks, empty craters, steep sided summits and other volcanic land features spread in all corners of the larger Virunga volcanic massif and need no interpretations. Nyiragongo erupted at approximately 9:30 AM local time (2:30 AM EST). Nyiragongo. Authorities issued a "Red Alert" and a full evacuation is underway. 57 non-accompanied children were counted in Bukavu. 4. Thursday 24th January, 2002 Read about our approach to external linking. Volcano Refugees Enter Uganda But fighting in the area and looting of equipment by armed militia camped on the volcano itself regularly forced volcanologists to flee. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Bulldozers are endeavoring to clear pathways through the lava. "The active phase of the volcanic eruption is finished," said Durieux, who was contracted by the UN to assess the situation. Background On January 17, Mt. Lava flows created fires in the commercial centre. Sunday 20th January, 2002 Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Der 3470 m hohe Stratovulkan Nyiragongo ist einer der acht Virunga-Vulkane, die zum Ostafrikanischen Grabenbruch gehören. The Gisenyi airport in Rwanda is capable of accommodating small aircraft. The Government of Rwanda has opened two IDP camps approximately 25 kilometers from Gisenyi with a potential capacity for 85,000 people. Reports of 2002 Eruption of Nyiragongo by John Seach. 45 people had been killed. The 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo volcano was the world's most dramatic example of a lava flow through a major town. The cone is two metres high and was spewing lava six metres into the air. Vulcanologists who flew over Mount Nyiragongo saw through its sulphurous haze a new crater, seven miles below the main volcano. Residents of Goma were evacuated after the eruption was underway. 1.52 S, 29.25 E, summit elevation 3469 m, stratovolcano. Numbers Affected by the Eruption: Water supplies, reinforced by the ICRC, are partially operational and the water quality is acceptable and there is no concern at this stage over there being sufficient supplies for the population. Aid workers had encouraged refugees to mass at two sites some 20 km (12 miles) from Gisenyi, where they said it would be easier to provide shelter, supplies and sanitation once aid promised by the international community started to arrive. Seismic and other measuring equipment continues to arrive. Red Cross teams indicate a determination to remain at all costs. The quality is poor but manageable and water quality tests would indicate that lake water can be pumped into the system and treated for distribution. The timely delivery of essential relief supplies such as blankets, plastic sheeting, utensils and other goods plus the transport, administrative and support costs and services to initiate this operation, will be critical. Residents said thousands of refugees including children had not eaten or drunk anything since the start of the eruption. Incessant earthquakes are still occuring and are wreaking their own damage and posing new concerns. The crater presently has two distinct cooled lava bencheswithin the crater walls – one at abo… By the 21st there were ~12,000 homeless families in Goma. Water from Lake Kivu poses no health threat to population. Monday 25th February 2002 General: Experts working with OCHA appear to be in agreement that further eruptions are unlikely and Goma has been officially declared safe. More than 100,000 fled to villages west of Goma, 12,000 to south to Bukavu and about 40,000 remain in Rwanda. Nyiragongo was in 1977, when the lava flow covered 20 square kilometers, killed 2,000 people, and destroyed 400 houses and a 10-kilometre section of road. However endangered gorillas that inhabit the region are unlikely to be hurt as they do not live on Nyiragongo's slopes. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) People who stayed in the town reported that lava had flowed onto the runway and taxiway at Goma's airport but that the facility could still be used. Implementing agencies are working with local authorities to better manage the crowds. 30% of water sources are restored in Goma and most of the town is expected to have had access to water by the evening of 22 January. The eruption sparked a humanitarian crisis as refugees flooded into the town of Gisenyi, where they have no food or shelter. Le Guern, F., 1987. The risk of a rapid release of CO2/methane gas remains a major concern and potential threat to the population. Saturday 26th January, 2002 None had seen any casualties. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) In January 2002, fast-flowing basalt lava, (1,000 kilometres wide) poured out of Mount Nyiragongo and into the city of Goma. However, there is reported activity from Nyamuragira the volcano some distance from Nyragongo. Some driven to desperation by thirst sought relief by drinking from Lake Kivu despite fears that lava may have poisoned its waters, officials and relief workers said. Another 100,000 are believed by aid workers to have escaped westwards, some of them taking boats to Bukavu on the southern tip of Lake Kivu. 7. A scientist team had a look at both of them (Nyimuragira and Nyiragongo) yesterday afternoon and there was nothing. Wednedsay 23rd January, 2002 Population movement between Gisenyi and Ruhengeri has stopped. Moderate shocks continued late Tuesday, 22 January and Wednesday, 23 January. There is no water or power in Goma, but residents said there was nothing to stay for in Rwanda. There were now fears that the lava could reach the nearby town of Goma, where nearly 500,000 people live." Eruption: Mount Nyiragongo is one of the most active volcanoes in the world that have a number of 34 recorded eruption times the last eruption that was recorded happened in 2016. There was very little warning as the lava reached the city of Goma. View in classroom. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Congolese officials reported three flows. Burns and other severe injuries, trauma, respiratory conditions, dehydration, and psychological stress are likely. Efforts were made to raise the alarm, but the lack of governance in Goma makes it unlikely that any plan to evacuate the city could have been implemented. The lava reached speeds of 60 km/h. While the seismic situation appears to be stabilising, further eruptions are feared, possibly under the lake. After small earthquakes rocked the area early this month, Wafula said, he knew that the eruption was just days away. 6. With a number of large cracks present in Goma, the risk of rapid release of CO2/methane gas remains a major concern and a potential threat to the population. Displaced People: Approximately 250,000 (USAID/OFDA field reports. This 2002 eruption started with a few signs in December 2000 where there were a few earthquakes/ volcanic tremors in the region that were prolonged. Total people affected: Up to 600,000 (U.N.) Activity from deep beneath the earth's surface is also another possibility. Samples of water and gas were collected for analysis at Cap Rubona where a pipeline, installed about 10 years ago, extracts gas from the lake Kivu at a depth of 320 metres. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The Red Cross delivered chlorine to one of Goma's water treatment plants and Goemans said the water was free of harmful bateria but mineral tests were still being run. According to the volcanologists conclusions, the most recent eruption has been building for at least one year. There were no reports of deaths or injuries. Lava continues to flow, although the rate of flow has slowed and much of the ash has cleared out of the air. The recorded eruptions of Mount Nyiragongo were about 34 and this is as of 1882. Eruptions are common and even last year there was a warning given about the postential disaster of an eruption in which lava reached Goma. Dieudonne Wafula, a Congolese volcanologist who has been studying the Nyiragongo for 15 years, said the volcano 20km north of Goma should now stop erupting for a few years, but earth tremors may intensify over the forthcoming days. The residential area in eastern Goma, where 15 percent of the population lives, does not have electricity. With as many as 400,000 persons potentially homeless, the shelter needs will be considerable. Agencies have been continuously assessing the situation on the ground. According to news Cargo planes carrying tons of supplies for the displaced have begun arriving in Kigali, Rwanda from where the aid will be trucked to the Congolese border, 75 miles to the west. Several thousands of families are reported to have settled in Bukavu. Dozens of tremors shook the earth early Monday morning in and around Goma. If the evacuation numbers are correct then it will be the largest evacuation in history due to volcanic activity. The main lava flow had stopped but poisonous gas still posed a health risk. Karel Prinsloo/AP PHOTO “They are right to be concerned,” Bell says. From 2002 up to date, there are still some seismic tremors and smaller eruptions which show that mount Nyiragongo is still an active volcano. A 10-foot deep crust had formed over the river of molten rock running underneath, forming a bridge for the thousands of residents trying to get home for the first time since the eruption began on Thursday. Have we learnt the lessons from the past? Damage assessments report that lava flows have destroyed 14 villages and approximately 20 percent of the western half of the city, which is the commercial district and is the least inhabited area of Goma. United Nations officials said they were encouraging refugees to mass at two camps some 12 miles from Gisenyi, where they could be more easily provided with shelter, supplies and sanitation. It is said to have been caused by tectonic plates near Lake Kivu fracturing and the constant seismic activity in the region. The ICRC is currently focusing on water assistance. Nyiragongo erupted at approximately 9:30 AM local time (2:30 AM EST) on January 17. Beginning around 19 January many Goma residents returned to the city; field reports from USAID/OFDA staff stated that on the morning of the 20th more than 15,000 people per hour returned, while only 3,000 people per hour fled the city. daccess-ods.un.org. Scientist gets too close to lava lake! While no visual confirmation of the eruption has taken place, ash deposits have been noted. Wednedsay 23rd January, 2002 At this time tremor with 5-second The Federation /RRC will continue to address the needs of those assigned to them. A survey team went to take a look: the shape of the lava pool inside the crater had shifted, and it was getting higher. Unconfirmed reports indicate 45 deaths, but burn victims, smoke inhalation, and other injuries are expected. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Lava has entered Lake Kivu. Saturday 19th January, 2002 Nyiragongo Volcano Disaster (Democratic Republic of Congo) About 35% of the town is now reported destroyed. They said the continuing earth tremors were due to gases, fluid magma moving underground; magma mixing with the underground water table; and activity deep beneath the earth's surface. More than a month after Nyiragongo volcano sent three huge lava flows into the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), local residents are still struggling to recover. A fourth fissure opened at 4:00 PM on January 17. There was no activity nor fumaroles at the bottom of the crater, however CO2 was present. VDAP scientists nevertheless received a warning on 12 January - five days before the first eruption. Report. Mount Nyiragongo, just 10 kilometres (six miles) north of Goma, a city of 350,000 people, erupted early on Thursday. However, diarroehal and respiratory infections are on the increase. Numerous houses in the villages of Kasenyi and Bugara (at least 600 people live there) collapsed, others are crossed by the still active fault system. At daybreak the lava was continuing to flow but it no longer threatened to cut the road linking Goma with Rwanda, witnesses said. Up to half a million were seriously at risk of malnutrition and disease, stranded without food, drinking water or shelter along the shores of Lake Kivu. The volcano is quiet." Twenty water purification stations have been established along the shore of Lake Kivu in areas where the water system does not reach. On the other hand, news interviews quoted Jaques Durieux, a French volcanologist working with the UN, as saying, "There is no reason for the methane and carbon dioxide to rise to the surface." In this lesson, you will learn about the immediate and long term responses to the 2002 Nyiragongo eruption in 2002. •Evacuation of more than 300,000 began only when plumes of ash and smoke were visible and lava flows were engulfing the area. Contrary to some reports there are no confirmed cases of cholera. An outbreak of cholera reports unconfirmed, possibly exaggerated. The lava was streaming down towards the town's airport, which has massive reserves of jet fuel. It is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Approximately 700 meters of the 2700-meter Goma airstrip have been destroyed. Der Aufstieg selbst ist nicht wirklich schwierig, obwohl es doch 1500 Höhenmeter zu bewältigen gibt. One month after the eruption, 350,000 people were dependant on aid. Nyiragongo is a steep-sided, active volcano. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) With as many as 400,000 persons potentially homeless, the shelter needs will be considerable. Nonetheless, continuing seismic activity is reported by Federation/Rwandan Red Cross (RRC)/ICRC teams in Goma and Gisenyi. Currently, this volcanic mountain has erupted at least 34 times since 1882. Dead trees on the northern outer slope of the crater were observed as well as evidence of slumping of the upper parts of the crater. The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo appears to have died down for the present, but the lava has engulfed large areas of Goma and life there remains extremely difficult. The eruption of Nyiragongo on 17/18 January 2002 led to a massive international response following the spontaneous and temporary evacuation of 400,000 people from the city of Goma located on the shore of Lake Kivu. The United Nations was sending a plane with 28 metric tons of emergency supplies to Kigali to help the Congolese refugees. Mount Nyiragongo. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Three teams of experts/volcanologists will be traveling to analyze gases being released, to observe the crater, review film footage of crater taken on the 24 of January and observe the massive surface fractures In 1994, five monitoring units were donated by the US Geological Survey's Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) to form the Goma Volcano Observatory. Then on 6 th February 2001, the neighboring Volcano, Mount Nyamuragira erupted for 2 weeks. Satellite imaging of the Nyirangongo eruption. Some of the hundreds of thousands of people displaced by a volcanic eruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) began to receive their first humanitarian aid Saturday, two days after a river of lava destroyed most of their home town. Probably half of the population are going to be homeless. Gas stations Food Aid Arrives for Volcano Refugees Fish have been reported floating dead in the water. Almost all the population of Goma has been adversely affected by the Nyiragongo volcano activity. Up to 60 killed in Goma petrol station blast Lesson overview: What were the responses to the 2002 eruption of Mount Nyiragongo? In January 2002, the opening of fissures lower down and directed towards Goma may reflect a new evolution for the volcano with eruptions caused by rifting. Many of these people would not have had any food or water since fleeing their homes Thursday evening and have been camping out in the open ever since. The unrest in the country made it difficult to monitor the volcano and put emergency responses in place. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The world's people who are least able to advocate for themselves are the most likely to suffer in such situations. Over the years, his monitoring equipment has been stolen and vandalized, yet he has persisted. The general health status is acceptable but monitoring continues. 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