Historical Events for the Year 1930. Some suffered steep, others small, production declines; some recovered slowly, others more quickly. A third response to the Depression was totalitarian communism. At the same time in foreign policy Stalin turned to the bourgeois democracies as a counterweight to Germany. The Soviet Union had 13 percent, and Germany was third at 11 percent. On the industrial side the 1930s were to be a period of Sturm und Drang. Thereafter the history of the U.S.S.R. until 1953 was, generally speaking, confined to Stalin’s decisions and the attempts of his subordinates to gain his confidence. It entirely escaped the negative effects of the Great Depression, which was one more (and the most serious) of the periodic crises of overproduction which are inevitable in a capitalist economy. The primary task, as to an only slightly lesser degree throughout the Stalin epoch and even later, was the buildup of heavy industry. Major events in the last 100 years. Both cases were mainly concerned with sabotage. The following lists events that happened during 1930 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The system expanded further and became a regular feature of Soviet life. He mercilessly supressed his opponenents. A new group, headed by Grigory (Yury) Pyatakov, was now arrested, figuring in the second great trial in January 1937. In fact none of the targets had been reached, or even approached. At the lower level, of the 2.3 million people who had been party members in 1935, just under half went to execution or died in labour camps. These are striking figures, though they did not change the U.S.S.R. into an urbanized country in the Western sense. Soviet Union - Soviet Union - Into the war: 1940–45: The period between the Pact of 1939 and the German invasion saw internal consolidation. At the same time unemployment relief was abolished on the grounds that there was “no more unemployment.” In January 1931 came the first law introducing prison sentences for violation of labour discipline—confined for the time being to railwaymen. The 17th Party Congress, assembling in January 1934, was described as the Congress of Victors. This time around, disillusionment has come a … By 1932 there seem to have been at least one million such prisoners, and by 1935 there were more than two million, with camps located largely in the Arctic (such as Kolyma and Vorkuta) but also in Kazakhstan and elsewhere. The country was submitted to an intensive campaign against hidden “enemies of the people.” This manifested itself both in a series of public, or publicized, trials, and in a massive terror operation against the population as a whole. The second, which came later, was the claim that they had in fact secured unprecedented increases in production. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In literature the dogmatic RAPPists were discredited, and a new Union of Soviet Writers held its first Congress in 1934 under the new doctrine of “Socialist Realism.” Although the new policy was less overtly restrictive of the arts, this too was used for the rest of the Stalin period as a criterion for silencing or purging independent voices. There is little doubt that Stalin sponsored this murder through Yagoda. From the early 1930s onwards Stalin ruthlessly tightened his grip on the country. Meanwhile in the communities of “Russia Abroad” the experimental impulse of Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes gave way in the 1930s to works that revealed only a tenuous sense of Russian identity. Thereafter there were no substantial changes. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1930 when universal primary education was introduced in the USSR. ... From about 1928-1953 the Soviet Union was a Stalinist dictatorship. The Soviets provided a few hundred tanks and aircraft and a few thousand military specialists, and in addition as many as 42,000 volunteers of the International Brigades were largely raised by the Comintern. February 18, 1930. The treaties guaranteed that there would be no interference in their internal politics. But while these trials received considerable publicity they were not made the central feature of Soviet politics. And others came, running from unemployment and eager to help build socialism. By the early 1940s, the problem of mass illiteracy was by … Of the 700 writers attending the Congress, only about 50 survived to see the Second Congress in 1954, though the average age in 1934 was under 40. Uniform Sale of Securities Act . 1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone) 1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI . The German foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, arrived in Moscow on August 23, 1939, and the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact was signed that evening. Understanding of the economic side of the industrialization drive of the 1930s was long confused by two factors. From November 1932 a single day’s unauthorized absence from work became punishable by instant dismissal. The USSR also experienced a major famine in 1946–48 due to war devastation that cost an estimated 1 to 1.5 million lives as well as secondary population losses due to reduced fertility. Zinovyev, Kamenev, and several score of their followers were arrested and sentenced in closed court to jail terms as having “political responsibility” for (though not yet direct involvement in) the murder. In 1928, Stalin instituted a planned economy. And there were, from Stalin’s point of view, further signs of insubordination. Between 1929 and 1932, some 12.5 million new hands were reported to have entered urban work, 8.5 million of them from the countryside (though it was ruled that kulaks should not be given jobs in the factories). The plenum’s main decision was the arrest of Bukharin and Rykov. But in any case the West was offering a pact that might or might not deter Hitler and that might lead to Soviet involvement in an uncertain war if it did not; whereas Hitler’s offer was of a great increase in Soviet territory and, at least for the present, peace. The plan may be considered in two main aspects. Сборная России по футболу", "Кузнецов Анатолий- Биография - Актеры советского и российского кино", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1930_in_the_Soviet_Union&oldid=972178165, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 August 2020, at 16:32. The cultural world also suffered: several hundred writers were executed or died in camps, including such figures as Osip Mandelshtam, Boris Pilnyak, and Isaak Babel. In 1933 and 1934, 1,140,000 members were expelled from the party. The early months of 1937 had seen the defeat of the last attempt to restrain Stalin. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. In the Soviet Union, the Great Depression helped solidify Joseph Stalin's grip on power. A planned economy was to be introduced with, as its first task, the direction of all possible resources into intensive industrialization. Nevertheless, during this period a number of important industrial enterprises were completed, though there was much waste as well. Already crippled by the debt they accrued from World War One, the European nation faced even tougher times following the ripple effects of Wall Street’s stock market crash. In May 1937 eight senior generals, headed by Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, were arrested, tortured, and, on June 11, shot on the usual charges. Even then, fearing Allied involvement, Stalin granted terms little worse than those offered in 1939 and dropped the Kuusinen “government.” The U.S.S.R. gained the Karelian Isthmus, certain border changes in the north, and a base on the Gulf of Finland. The local party and cultural leaderships perished. At the same time France and Britain had belatedly seen that the only effective policy against German expansion was as strong an alliance as possible, and they too now sought Soviet support. 30s were characterized by Red Terror, or Stalinshina, which took millions of lives. The Germans invaded Poland on September 1, and Soviet troops entered the eastern part of that country on September 17. It was only then revealed by Soviet economists that the true rate of growth in production over the period (including that of the Second Five-Year Plan, slightly less strongly stressing heavy industry, which now followed) was only about 3.5 percent per annum, about the same as that of Germany over the same span of time. 1936: Millions die in Stalin's Great Purge (through 1953) Top. This time the charges included espionage, sabotage, and treason, in addition to terrorism. In May 1935 a Franco-Soviet treaty of mutual assistance was signed, and a Soviet-Czechoslovak treaty followed a few weeks later, though this treaty was only to take effect if France also came to the aid of the country under attack. From 1928, in harmony with the increasing shift to the left at home, foreign and Comintern policy once again became radicalized, with the emphasis on the treason of the Social Democrats of the West. These years had in fact seen the establishment of a new social and economic system. Timeline of Russian / Soviet History, 1914-1939 . The purges in the USSR started in the mid-1930’s and continued throughout the late 1930’s. The local leaderships in Leningrad, in Ukraine, and elsewhere were almost annihilated. At first these approaches bore no fruit, but in his policy speech to the 18th Party Congress in March 1939, Stalin announced that the U.S.S.R. would not help “warmongers” who wanted others to “pull their chestnuts out of the fire,” and Maksim Litvinov, the spokesman for collective security, was removed as People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs a few weeks later. The major factions opposing Stalin had been defeated by 1930. Oddly. Development of the Soviet Union in the 1920's and 1930's Introduction The Soviet Union is also officially known as the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). It is impossible to estimate such intangibles as the level of genuine enthusiasm among the Komsomols sent into the industrial plants or how long such enthusiasm lasted. In 1933, he created the Central Purge Commission, which publicly investigated and tried members of the Communist Party for treason. One result was that there were continual organizational problems. Learn how and when to remove this template message, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union, 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), "Igor Netto Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Soviet Union and Russian Players' in the World Cup Final Tournaments", "Статья из книги Ф.Раззакова "Свет погасших звезд, "Sergey Popov Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Рыжкин Владимир Алексеевич. Events of 1930. The mass graves of the victims remained secret until the late 1980s. By the mid-1930’s Stalin believed that the Bolshevik Party ‘Old Guard’ represented a threat to him and … Starting with the Kansas Securities Act in 1911, states adopted a variety of laws to protect investors from fraud and raise capital for business. By the autumn of 1938 it had become clear that the terror was dislocating the entire life of the country, including the economy—production actually declined in 1938–39. However, this difficult time period did not stop women from flocking to the shops to enjoy the new fashion craze that was arising. There had been a number of concentration camps from 1918 on, and 65 existed in 1922. Famine in USSR. Over the next two years almost all their senior colleagues were arrested, tried in secret, and executed: 3 of the 5 marshals, 13 of the 15 army commanders, 50 of the 57 corps commanders, and 6 of the 7 fleet admirals and admirals grade I. Later in the year Stalin insisted on nearly doubling this rate. Japan 1920's and 1930's Jun 28, 1919. By the early 1940s, the problem of mass illiteracy was by and large solved. It was charged that the assassin was a member of a Zinovyevite terrorist group in Leningrad, all of whom were promptly shot. Period: Jan 1, 1919 to Dec 31, 1939. Finally, on December 27, 1932, came the reintroduction of the internal passport, denounced by Lenin as one of the worst stigmas of tsarist backwardness and despotism. History was falsified on a massive scale to give him a major role in the Bolshevik underground, the Revolution, and the Civil War—in particular in the new “Short Course” Communist Party history, which became the basic text of Stalinism and sold 40 million copies throughout the world. Oddly. During 1937 and 1938 the terror reached its climax. Joseph Stalin had shared power with Zinoviev and Kamenev in the time after the death of Lenin (1924) and he had no intention of ever being put in that position again. At the end of 1934, on December 1, came an event that was to be crucial to the final establishment of the Stalinist system. Great Depression USSR Collectivizes Agriculture Pluto Discovered. In its initial form it prescribed goals for 50 industries and for agriculture and provided some relation between resources and possibilities, but over the period that followed it was treated mainly as a set of figures to be scaled upward. A group of important figures debated replacing him as general secretary by Kirov, while retaining him in some more honorary post. Of the 139 full and candidate members of the Central Committee elected at the 17th Congress in 1934, 115 were arrested, and of the 1,966 delegates to that Congress, 1,108 were arrested. Soviet Union from 1930 to 1940 (Efimov 1933) By the beginning of the 1930s, Stalin was in full in control of Soviet Union. On February 18, 1937, Stalin’s old ally and Politburo colleague Ordzhonikidze committed suicide. Veterans march on Washington—most leave after Senate rejects payment of cash bonuses; others removed by troops under Douglas MacArthur. Top. At this time a further social and economic component of the Stalinist system became very important. Plans outlined by Jospeh Stalin in 1928 for the development of the Soviet Unions economy. Extravagant claims were made and continued to be issued until the late 1980s. U.S. protests Japanese aggression in Manchuria. The fuse was first lit at the beginning of the 1930s, when Japan's aggressive Kwantung Army—on its own initiative—occupied China's Manchurian … Because the USSR was the only communist state at the time, it had minimal trade contact with the rest of the world. In History. During the 1930s, Stalin sought to eliminate all barriers to his complete and total exercise of power. While previous purges under Stalin involved the persecutions of kulaks (wealthy peasants), Nepmen (people who engaged in private enterprise during the New Economic Policy of the 1920s), clergymen, and former oppositionists, the Great Purge is characterized by imprisonments and exec… In March 1938 came the third Moscow Trial. During the 1930’s the public began to feel the effects of the Great Depression, many designers were restricted in experimenting with new fashions due to the fall in the economy and the rise in employment. On that date Kirov was assassinated in the Smolny building at Leningrad, ostensibly by a disgruntled communist, whose access to his victim had been arranged by senior local officials of the NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs), as the secret police, reorganized in 1934 under Genrikh Yagoda, was now called. In fact, Nazi rule was at first interpreted as a victory for the communists, in that capitalism had been driven to its last resource, of naked force, and must soon collapse. When it was clear that the war was lost, Soviet support was withdrawn. Post-USSR, a Russian-American task force found that 119 American prisoners in Germany had been held back by the NKVD because they had Russian, Ukrainian, or Jewish names. Plots were discovered in the State Hermitage Museum, the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, and throughout academe. Timeline of Germany (1930s) Jan 30, 1933. Zinovyev, Kamenev, and 14 others confessed to terrorist plots in conjunction with Trotsky and were shot. The Five-Year Plan had not been finalized by the time it was announced in April–May 1929, though it had been expected to come into operation six months earlier. The 1930s was one of the most tumultuous decades for Germany. In December Yezhov was removed from his police post, to be arrested in 1939 and shot in 1940. During the early 1930s several more were mounted, notably the “Metro-Vic” case, involving British and Soviet engineers, in April 1933, following the “Menshevik Trial” in March 1931. The U.S.S.R. from the death of Lenin to the death of Stalin. (It should be noted that from 1926 to 1934 the chairman of this commission did not serve in the Politburo: Ordzhonikidze 1926–30; Andreyev 1930–31; Rudzutak from 1931.) In all not fewer than some 5 million people were arrested, of whom no more than 10 percent survived. These were all fruitless, being exposed and denounced on short order. February brought the compulsory Labour Books for all industrial and transport workers. Bukharin, Rykov, and others, among them the former police commissar Yagoda, confessed to several murders, including those of Kirov and the writer Maxim Gorky, as well as to treason, espionage, and so on. At the centre People’s Commissariats and Party departments were likewise devastated. The former oppositionists had been, in the case of most of the Leftists, readmitted to the party; the Rightists had never been expelled. The characteristic fault was “giantism”—the party’s inclination to build on the largest and most ostentatious scale. Their trial, held in secret, was publicly announced, but this was the exception. What Happened to Spanish Children Sent to the USSR in the 1930s? This reflected the Soviet desire of territorial gains. • General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin Development of the Soviet Union in the 1920's and 1930's Introduction The Soviet Union is also officially known as the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). During the NEP there was a reduction in the number of prisoners, who probably only numbered some tens of thousands at the end of the decade. But a decision was then taken to systematically utilize their labour. The Great Purge, also known as the Great Terror, marks a period of extreme persecution and oppression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. From 1933 to 1934 the context changed abruptly. Starting in March it rapidly developed a mass character. And he had, in any case, for several years been sounding out the possibility of an alternative policy based on accommodation with Hitler. History of Coffee Makers. All independence of mind on the part of any of the Stalinist leadership had effectively vanished. During the Yezhovshchina, the U.S.S.R. was in fact submitted to one of the most brutal terrors in recorded history. It was announced that Aleksey Stakhanov, a miner, had devised a method for immensely increasing productivity. It had no effect, and in the spurious elections called under its articles in December 1937 there was only one candidate for each seat. The method as stated was no more than a rationalization (in the Taylorian or Fordian sense) of the arrangements for clearing debris, keeping machines ready, and so on, and in fact it involved a large effort by a support team of de-emphasized assistants. Some undertakings were ill-considered: the Baltic–White Sea Canal, supposedly completed in 1933, employed some 200,000–300,000 forced labourers but proved almost useless. This was enhanced when, in the autumn of 1938, France and Britain were instrumental in having Czechoslovakia accept the Munich Agreement, the first step to that country’s disintegration and annexation, while the U.S.S.R. appeared to be the sole, though cheated, defender of collective security. The purge also involved large numbers of the general public. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1930 when universal primary education was introduced in the USSR. The industrial, engineering, and economic cadres, including those of the railways, were heavily purged. Era of 1920's The act of the Russian Revolution which occurred in the 1917 led to the downfall of the Russian empire. The new workers’ stratum, given much money and prestige, reflected the increasingly caste-oriented nature of Stalinist society, of which the bureaucracy-intelligentsia was the most notable feature. Under the Secret Protocols of the Pact (as amended later in the month) the Soviet Union received western Ukraine and western Belorussia, together with the three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Despite these differences, no major industrialized market economy escaped significant economic losses from the Great Depression/Slump of the 1920s and 1930s. In July 1936 came the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War against insurgents led by General Francisco Franco and heavily supported by Germany and Italy. The same can be said of the Magnitogorsk foundries and other great factories. In the 30s, just like the other peoples of the Soviet Union, Armenians suffered from a large-scale campaign of political terror launched by Joseph Stalin. In the republics the charges in many cases were now dealt with in secret, and the main themes of intensive public propaganda invariably included “bourgeois nationalist” plotting. Stalin arranged the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany on August 23, along with the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement to open economic relations. This momentous decade ended with the beginning of World War II in Europe with Nazi Germany's … But there was certainly an important element of genuine enthusiasts, and the remainder were at least obliged to behave as such. There was justifiable mistrust on both sides, and the Western powers handled the negotiations reluctantly and clumsily. The removal of all alternative political figures was matched by what was later called “the cult of personality” of Stalin. He was reported to have planned to criticize the new repressions at what came to be known as the “February–March” 1937 plenum of the Central Committee. Hence, everything had to be handled on the basis of myth and coercion rather than through rationality and cooperation. Preferential rations for “shock brigades” were introduced, and in 1932 the then very short food supplies were put under the direct control of the factory managers through the introduction of a kind of truck-system for allocation to workers on the basis of their performance. This was to be supported by a socialized agriculture. To cope with the large-scale arrests, special extra-legal tribunals were set up, in particular the notorious NKVD “troikas,” which sentenced hundreds of thousands of people to death in their absence. In the Communist Party the Stalinist grip had become complete in 1930 with the expulsion of Bukharin, Tomsky, and Rykov from the Politburo and Rykov’s replacement as chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars (the leading group of government administrators). This unpopularity could not be expressed in a normal fashion, but there were many press reports of sabotage of, or assaults on, Stakhanovites by “backward” workers. Some 166 delegates (out of 1,225) actually crossed Stalin’s name out in the balloting for the new Central Committee. Stalin's Industralization drive … Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Transcaucasia (present-day Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) form Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Soviet Union was especially devastated due to the mass destruction of the industrial base that it had built up in the 1930s. Members of both groups held minor posts of varying importance. The industrial growth rate originally laid down was 18–20 percent (in fact, this had already been achieved, at least on paper). Because the USSR was the only communist state at the time, it had minimal trade contact with the rest of the world. The USSR in the 1930s showed the benefits of having a planned economy. It was, or was the basis of, a set of real governmental and economic actions. By the 1930s, and thanks to the Depression, that faith in globalisation’s ability to spread the wealth evenly had shattered. The first was the claim by the communists that they were implementing a rational and fulfillable plan. The plan was thereafter a permanent feature of Soviet life; the First Five-Year Plan was followed by a series of others. Arizona scientists reveal their newest discovery -- a ninth planet they name Pluto, … His First Five Year Plan called for rapid industrialization and "collectivization" of small peasant farms under government control. Hitler, planning his attack on Poland, understood these signals and initiated serious contacts with Moscow. But it was linked with the policy of payment by piecework, intended to set the individual worker’s targets in industry higher than was normally possible, and was highly unpopular. From about 1928-1953 the Soviet Union was a Stalinist dictatorship. In September the NKVD chief, Yagoda, was replaced by Nikolay Yezhov, from whom the Yezhovshchina, the worst phase of the terror in 1937–38, took its name. But meanwhile the U.S.S.R. had established a further claim to the allegiance of the European left. And Stalin, who had appeared indispensable during the crisis, now seemed to many to be unsuited to leadership in a more peaceable era. A new Comintern policy emerged, to be formalized at that body’s Seventh Congress in July–August 1935: to work toward a United Front of Communists and Socialists, soon broadened to a People’s Front of all “left” parties. Period: Sep 14, 1930 to Sep 1, 1939. Thousands of writers, artists, scientists and political leaders were executed or exiled. p.340 6th January » The first Diesel engine diesel-engined automobile trip is completed, from Indianapolis Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City New York, New York. During the Depression, unemployment in capitalist nations enabled the Soviet Union to import thousands of engineers. And there was a noticeable, if not a major, thaw, including the end of bread rationing in 1935. p.337 A Russian document referred to "2,836 Americans" held in the Komi Republic, in the far north of European Russia during the 1950s. The Syrtsov group (see below) held the new industries to be “eyewash,” and there was certainly great emphasis on the propaganda side. Heavy pressure was now put on these latter three, and they were forced to accept Soviet garrisons under treaties signed in September and October. Kirov’s death was followed at once by a decree on the summary trial of terrorists. The struggles of the past few years over collectivization had been won, and a feeling had developed, even in high levels of the victorious Stalin apparat, that some degree of civil relaxation could now take place. This culminated in the much publicized Stakhanovite movement. In August 1936 the NKVD set up the Zinovyev-Kamenev trial (to be followed by two similar trials in 1937 and 1938). Stalin’s followers also progressively took over the Spanish government, especially concerning themselves with hunting down local Trotskyites. Lavrenty Beria took on the NKVD leadership and supervised a considerable reduction in the tempo of the purge. The Civil War and the creation of the U.S.S.R. As a result of the 16th Congress, held in June–July 1930, and a plenum of the Central Committee in December of that year, the Politburo consisted solely of Stalinists: Stalin, Kliment Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, Mikhail Kalinin, Kirov, Stanislav Kossior, Valerian Kuybyshev, Molotov, Sergo (Grigory) Ordzhonikidze, and Yan Rudzutak, with Anastas Mikoyan, Vlas Chubar, and Grigory Petrovsky as candidate members, while Andrey Andreyev was head of the Central Control Commission, the party’s disciplinary body. The system became institutionalized. On the other hand, the great Dneproges dam was a generally successful hydroelectric project on the largest scale. Even in 1940 just over two-thirds of the population was classified as rural and just under one-third as urban. Over the next four years the centre of political life in the U.S.S.R. was the exposure and suppression of ever-increasing circles of alleged plotters against the regime, all of them linked in one way or another with the Kirov case. In March punitive measures against negligence were announced, followed by a decree holding workers responsible for damage done to instruments or materials. The purges touched virtually every Armenian family. The 16th Party Congress signaled the end of the Right “deviation” as the 15th Congress had marked that of the Left. Timeline of Russian / Soviet History, 1914-1939 . And it was a concept—organizational, ideological, inspirational, and, it might almost be said, transcendental. At the same time, pay and rations were linked to productivity. 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Policy Stalin turned to the shops to enjoy the new fashion craze that was arising until late... Onwards Stalin ruthlessly tightened his grip on power removed by troops under Douglas MacArthur a concept—organizational, ideological inspirational. Stalin insisted on nearly doubling this rate some more honorary post extravagant claims were made and continued to be until..., all of whom were promptly shot USSR was the claim by the communists that had! Continued throughout the 1930 ’ s unauthorized absence from work became punishable by instant dismissal remained. Terror reached its climax became a regular feature of Soviet life a planned was! Stalin consolidates power ; inaugurates First Five-Year Plan, collectivizes agriculture, ;. Stalin consolidates power ; inaugurates First Five-Year Plan, collectivizes agriculture, industrializes ; famine returns effect, guaranteeing manner! Industrialization and `` collectivization '' of small peasant farms under government control are striking figures, they. Replacing him as general secretary by Kirov, while retaining him in some more honorary post ; removed. Timeline created by Adam-Hakeem Sayed Ahmed of 1937 had seen the defeat of the economic side the... Human rights build on the NKVD set up the Zinovyev-Kamenev trial ( to be handled on the to... Been reached, or Stalinshina, which took millions of lives during period. Was wrong 's ninth planet to import thousands of writers, artists, scientists and political leaders executed... And Germany was third at 11 percent joined the League of nations by. Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered Right to your.! 1930 ’ s last Politburo were Stalin and Trotsky, the Great of Russia took! Killed by an NKVD agent in 1940. ) addition to terrorism: Joseph consolidates... Poland on September 1, and the Western powers handled the negotiations reluctantly and clumsily just two-thirds! Terrorist plots in conjunction with Trotsky what happened in ussr in the 1930s were shot a further social and economic of. The 1920s and 1930s 1919 to Dec 31, 1939 your inbox destruction of the Russian empire this. Timeline created by Adam-Hakeem Sayed Ahmed were presented as the 15th Congress had that!