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hellenistic culture today

The art and literature of the era were transformed accordingly. Although Rome’s rule ended Greek independence and autonomy it did nothing to significantly change nor did it … When Adam and Eve decided to disobey God's command not to eat from the tree (Gen. 2:16-17), they decided for themselves what was right and best for them and didn?t depend on God. Give now to help That The World May Know Ministries reveal the heart of Scripture—through life-changing study tours, an engaging film series, and more—for a greater understanding of God’s Word than ever before. [2], Charms, often cut in precious or semi-precious stone, had protective power. Many sculptures made in the Hellenistic world are influential even today. Astronomy, math, physics, Stoicism and Epicureanism. Hellenistic civilization The city-state ( polis ) had been the defining feature of Greek civilization, and one of the most notable features of the period is that Alexander and his successors founded numerous Greek-style cities right across the Middle East, as far as Afghanistan and India. Typically, historians start the Hellenistic Age with the death of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in 323 B.C.It follows the Classical Age and precedes the incorporation of the Greek empire within the Roman empire in 146 B.C. Who is Archimedes? Choose from 500 different sets of hellenistic culture flashcards on Quizlet. [15], These newly introduced religions and gods only had a limited impact within Greece itself; the main exception was at Delos,[9] which was a major port and trading center. It may be that it was eventually marginalized by, partially absorbed into or became progressively the Koiné-speaking core of Early Christianity centered on Antioch and its traditions, such as the Melkite Catholic Church, and the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. - A selfie is a picture that one takes of themselves, which is similar to the sculptures. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the ancient Greek world with that of Western Asian, Northeastern African and Southwestern Asian. He joined the world through language, culture, and commerce. What could not be understood or explained was viewed as false. - An example of how today's culture compares to Hellenistic art is a selfie. Today Hellenism is called Humanism, and it still promotes the idea that the human being is the ultimate authority in the universe. While the Hellenistic world incorporated a number of different people, Greek thinking, mores, and way of life dominated the public affairs of the time. Hellenistic refers to Greek language and culture. In contrast, the worldview of Christianity is based on God as the ultimate truth and authority. Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature and Art Hellenistic philosophy went through a peculiar evolution—or retrogression, it might almost be better to say. Today we commonly hear phrases like: "Just do it." During the first stage it was still under the influence of Greek thought and consequently showed an elemental regard for reason as the key to the solution of man's problems. Hellenistic age - Hellenistic age - Hellenistic civilization: The greatest of Alexander’s foundations became the greatest city of the Hellenistic world, Alexandria-by-Egypt. The island was sacred as the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis, and by the 2nd century BCE was also home to the native Greek religions that follow Zeus, Athena, Dionysus, Hermes, Pan, and Asclepius. In the aftermath of the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek culture spread widely and came into much closer contact with the civilizations of the Near East and Egypt. Oracular shrines and sanctuaries were still popular. The decline of Hellenistic Judaism started in the 2nd century AD, and its causes are still not fully understood. What could me more natural than to get the most out of life. The Hellenistic civilization marked an important time in Greek culture. [3] There is also much evidence for the use of charms and curses. Hellenistic Christianity is notable for its combination of Greek philosophy, ethics and morality with Christian belief. The first evidence of it is recorded when Satan asked Eve, "Did God really say"? Thus truth is what the human mind can discover, demonstrate, and understand. His successors continued his worship to the point where in Egypt under Ptolemy I Soter, we find Alexander being honored as a god. [14], The religion of Atargatis (related to the Babylonian and Assyrian Ishtar and Phoenician Ba`alat Gebal), a fertility- and sea goddess from Syria, was also popular. [12] Serapis was patronized by the Greeks who had settled in Egypt. [18] Temples dedicated to rulers were rare, but their statues were often erected in other temples, and the kings would be worshiped as "temple-sharing gods. Architectural styles changed and refined and new ideas like the Corinthian order were implemented in this period. [2], Astrology — the belief that stars and planets influence a person's future — arose in Babylonia, where it was originally only applied to the king or nation. Since the human being was considered the "measure of all," human wisdom was deemed to be the greatest wisdom. Western civilization today continues to be influenced by diverse cultures. [4] Older surveys of Hellenistic religion tended to depict the era as one of religious decline, discerning a rise in scepticism, agnosticism and atheism, as well as an increase in superstition, mysticism, and astrology. Culture, Hellenism, Genesis 2:16, Genesis 3:1, confronting the hellenism of today, [Hebrew Mind], FAQs The Hellenistic period is dated from 323 B.C. For example, modern democracies have their roots in the Greek “demokratia” that began in Athens around 500 BC. [17] Ptolemy's son Ptolemy II Philadelphus proclaimed his late father a god, and made himself a living god. until 31 B.C. By this ocurring, Alexander allowed the Hellenistic Age to shine, a time when Greek culture mixed with the various cultures of Alexander's vast Empire. Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature and Art Hellenistic philosophy went through a peculiar evolution—or retrogression, it might almost be better to say. In such a worldview, God is the ultimate authority in the universe. Our great temptation is that we may compromise and live as Hellenists or Humanists, and lose the opportunity to bring God's life-transforming love and truth to a spiritually needy world. [1] The city-states would conduct various festivals and rituals throughout the year, with particular emphasis directed towards the patron god of the city, such as Athena at Athens, or Apollo at Corinth. Hellenistic Culture The influence of Greek language, philosophy and culture on Jews and early Christians. The Hellenistic Age marks the transformation of Greek society from the localized and introverted city-states to an open, cosmopolitan, and at times exuberant culture that permeated the entire eastern Mediterranean, and Southwest Asia. Hellenistic culture exhibited more strikingly than classical Greek culture the differences between the life of the hellenized upper social strata and that of the urban and rural poor, among whom local traditions were preserved for a longer period of time. Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. To this day, this part of the globe still values Hellenistic concepts like democracy, scientific endeavor, and humanism. His revelation is the source of our vision for society, our knowledge, our morality, and even truth itself. Concepts like globalization seem modern, but they trace their roots back to one man – Alexander the Great. Today Hellenism is called Humanism, and it still promotes the idea that the human being is the ultimate authority in the universe. "Man," said the Greek philosopher Protagoras (481-411 BC), "is the measure of all things of what is and what is not." Contact A conquerer who started the movement of Hellenistic culture. It promoted all the cultures present in the eastern Mediterranean. The concept of Hellenistic religion as the late form of Ancient Greek religion covers any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). [7] Other philosophies included Pyrrhonism which taught how to attain inner peace via suspension of judgment; Cynicism (philosophy), which expressed contempt for convention and material possessions; the Platonists who followed the teachings of Plato, and the Peripatetics who followed Aristotle. Truth is defined as that which each person can logically understand and demonstrate (or at least that which the majority of people decides is right). Truth is what God revealed and allowed his people to discover. Concepts like globalization seem modern, but they trace their roots back to one man – Alexander the Great. The YSEE is a member of the European Congress of Ethnic Religion and … This philosophy provided the foundation for Hellenism, which was devoted to the supremacy of human beings and human accomplishment. Greek language was for this time the language of the intellectuals, the literate later adopted by the Romans and then transformed. It is into this world that a new player in the civilization game would appear in the mid-200s B.C. The third era of ancient Greek history was the Hellenistic Age when the Greek language and culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world. After all, life's greatest goal was to be the best at any pursuit. While Hellenism has sometimes been presented (under the influence of 2 Maccabees, itself notably a work in Koine Greek), as a threat of assimilation diametrically opposed to Jewish tradition, The main religious issue dividing Hellenized Jews from traditional Jews was the application of biblical laws in a H… But there were also cult centers for the Egyptian Sarapis and Isis, and of the Syrian Atargatis and Hadad. The systems of Hellenistic philosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditional religion, even if their impact was largely limited to educated élites. [1] At the local level, the landscape was filled with sacred spots and monuments; for example, many statues of Nymphs were found near and around springs, and the stylized figures of Hermes could often be found on street corners.[1]. Hellenistic Judaism also existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists (sometimes called Judaizers). Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture. In many ways, the Hellenistic period was a hugely cultured age – almost self-consciously so. Central to Greek religion in classical times were the twelve Olympian deities headed by Zeus. Within our public educational system, Hellenistic teaching is prevalent. [16], Another innovation in the Hellenistic period was the institution of cults dedicated to the rulers of the Hellenistic kingdoms. This was the period between 323 and 31 BC, at one point the Greek society changed from being withdrawn and localized to an aggressive multinational, unprotected, and eager culture that infused together southwest Asia and eastern Mediterranean. The religion was brought to Greece by Egyptian priests, initially for the small Egyptian communities in the port cities of the Greek world. [5], There is, however, no reason to suppose that there was a decline in the traditional religion. Hellenism was based in the belief that human beings are the ultimate source of truth and authority in the universe. Discover the Bible in light of its historical and cultural context! Until the fall of the Roman Empire and the Muslim conquests of the Eastern Mediterranean, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism were Alexandria (Egypt) and Antioch (now Southern Turkey), the two main Greek urban settlements of the Middle East and North Africa area, both founded at the end of the 4th century BC in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great. These religions often had a goal of personal improvement, which would also extend to the afterlife. At the centre of these religions were complex systems governing the interrelationships between gods and humans, individuals and the state, and living people and their ancestors. - Hellenistic art was not of the Greek gods but rather sculptures of themselves. In this way, parts of Hellenistic culture remain alive today. [20], An alternative to traditional religion was offered by Hellenistic philosophy. If you are trying to schedule a speaking engagement for Ray Vander Laan, please email Alison at lattwmk@yahoo.com, That the World May Know Ministries (TTWMK). The major literary product of the contact of Second Temple Judaism and Hellenistic culture is the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koiné Greek, specifically, Jewish Koiné Greek. Hellenistic culture let the other cultures such as Persian, Egyptians, and Greek to be preached while it still stayed as the most followed culture. All aspects of culture took a Greek hue, with the Greek language being established as the official language of the Hellenistic world. [16] By the 1st century BCE there were additional religions that followed Ba'al and Astarte, a Jewish Synagogue and Romans who followed the original Roman religions of gods like Apollo and Neptune. [20] The Greeks, in the Hellenistic era, elaborated it into the fantastically complex system of Hellenistic astrology familiar to later times. Hellenistic art was more focused on the real rather than the old culture. [10] The religion following Cybele (or the Great Mother) came from Phrygia to Greece and then to Egypt and Italy, where in 204 BCE the Roman Senate permitted her worship. Harold W. Attridge: The Lillian Claus Professor of New Testament Yale Divinity School The cultural tradition of the Greeks, Hellenism was the prevalent worldview before and during the growth of early Christianity. The concept of Hellenistic religion as the late form of Ancient Greek religion covers any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). He joined the world through language, culture, and commerce. in the times that spring up after Alexander the Great’s conquests. The Hellenistic period occurred from the third to the first centuries B.C. One of these philosophies was Stoicism, which taught that life should be lived according to the rational order which the Stoics believed governed the universe; human beings had to accept their fate as according to divine will, and virtuous acts should be performed for their own intrinsic value. No society can exist for very long when it creates its own view of truth. to the death of Cleopatra and the incorporation of Egypt in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E. It was laid out in the typical Hellenistic grid pattern along a narrow strip between Lake Mareotis and the sea. Philip II had been a hostage for three years in Greek Thebes where he was exposed to Greek culture, military tactics and formations, and philosophy.Although he made the greatest use of the military information, he decreed a … Hellenistic kingship remained the dominant political form in the Greek East for nearly three centuries following the death of Alexander the Great. But, generally speaking, Hellenistic thought was not as profound or as universal in its appeal as early Greek thought had been. Your support now will help strengthen marriages, equip parents to raise godly children, save preborn babies, reach out to orphans and more by supporting our daily broadcasts, online and print resources, counseling, and life-changing initiatives. The Greeks viewed Jewish culture favorably, while vice versa, Hellenism gained adherents among the Jews. The worship of deified Hellenistic rulers also became a feature of this period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adapted earlier Egyptian practices and Greek hero-cults and established themselves as Pharaohs within the new syncretic Ptolemaic cult of Alexander the Great. In effect, they worshiped themselves. Trade continued among the different parts of the empire. [1], Religious practice would also involve the worship of heroes, people who were regarded as semi-divine. [17], By doing so, the Ptolemies were adapting earlier Egyptian ideas in pharaonic worship. Hellenism spread... See full answer below. [9] Although the Egyptian religion found only a small audience among the Greeks themselves, her popularity spread under the Roman empire,[10] and Diodorus Siculus wrote that the religion was known throughout almost the whole inhabited world. [20] Interest in astrology grew rapidly from the 1st century BCE onwards. • Hellenistic •Alexandria • Euclid • Archimedes •Colossus of Rhodes 5 Hellenistic age - Hellenistic age - Hellenistic civilization: The greatest of Alexander’s foundations became the greatest city of the Hellenistic world, Alexandria-by-Egypt. The most significant changes to impact on Greek religion were the loss of independence of the Greek city-states to Macedonian rulers; the importation of foreign deities; and the development of new philosophical systems. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. There was much continuity in Hellenistic religion: people continued to worship the Greek gods and to practise the same rites as in Classical Greece. [6] There is plenty of documentary evidence that the Greeks continued to worship the same gods with the same sacrifices, dedications, and festivals as in the classical period. The organization is still active today, and it refers to its Hellenism as “ethnic polytheistic” and “genuine Hellenism.” Its followers are called Ethnikoi Hellenes (ethnic Hellenes). For instance, “the Boxer” shows the boxer’s bleeding knuckles after the fight. (Gen. 3:1). Focus on the Family is committed to helping families thrive according to God’s Word! [7] New religions did appear in this period, but not to the exclusion of the local deities,[8] and only a minority of Greeks were attracted to them. We live in the same type of world as the early Christian missionaries did. In fact, Greek ideas and culture played an important role in shaping modern western civilization. Hellenistic culture blended Greek culture with those of the lands conquered by Alexander the Great, particularly Egypt and Persia. Most people of the Hellenistic period knew the same language. This was the period between 323 and 31 BC, at one point the Greek society changed from being withdrawn and localized to an aggressive multinational, unprotected, and eager culture that infused together southwest Asia and eastern Mediterranean. And it still is not to us today. At the centre of these religions were complex systems governing the interrelationships between gods and humans, individuals and the state, and living people and their ancestors. Elsewhere, rulers might receive divine status without achieving the full status of a god. The glorification of human accomplishment, the drive to be number one, the obsession with comfort and pleasure, the focus on the human body and sexuality, the lack of compassion for other people, and the commitment to the will of the majority as being right are built on a foundation that is as old as the Garden of Eden and was well articulated by ancient Greek philosophers. When the Spirit filled disciples left Jerusalem for Judea, Samaria, and the ends of the earth, the people to which they went were living Hellenistic lives convinced that they were the authority in … The first of these was established under Alexander, whose conquests, power, and status had elevated him to a degree that required special recognition. Instead of depicting ideals such as logic and suppressed emotion or perfect beauty, the artists explore reality. Because they had nothing greater than themselves on which to base their worldview and society, their society eventually collapsed. In this greatly expanded Greek world, Hellenistic art and culture emerged and flourished. [3] Also long established were the Eleusinian Mysteries, associated with Demeter and Persephone. This article suggests an appeal to a broader cultural contextualization, calling on scholars to look at the interactions between Greek and non-Greek cultures in the Hellenistic period, which followed the reign of Alexander, and in which he continued to enjoy cult status. The accumulation of material possessions in order to provide oneself with luxury and comfort was a common pursuit. The Hellenistic civilization marked an important time in Greek culture. The term represents the spread of Greek culture through the conquests of Alexander the Great, but historians speculate whether this … Hellenistic Culture The Hellenistic states were ruled by kings. "I can do whatever I want with my body." The core beliefs of Hellenism haven't disappeared with the advancements of today's culture. The Hellenistic World (from the Greek word Hellas for Greece) is the known world after the conquests of Alexander the Great and corresponds roughly with the Hellenistic Period of ancient Greece, from 323 BCE (Alexander’s death) to the annexation of Greece by Rome in 146 BCE. Comparison of Hellenic and Hellenistic Greek Civilization. This era saw the transformation of the Greece society from a localized and city-states approach to a more extrovert and open culture mainly due to the cosmopolitan nature of the kings who ruled these regions. This religion involved initiation rites like the Eleusinian Mysteries. The Hellenists tried to build their society on their gods, which were human creations. Mentionable are also the philosophic and ethical treatises of Philo and the historiographical works of the other Hellenistic Jewish authors.[21][22]. Curse tablets made from marble or metal (especially lead) were used for curses. The resulting values are absolute, not merely creations of our imaginations, and form a strong basis for society and the belief in the dignity of each person who is created in God's image. Typically, historians start the Hellenistic Age with the death of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in 323 B.C.It follows the Classical Age and precedes the incorporation of the Greek empire within the Roman empire in 146 B.C. A hellenistic scientist of Syracuse, who estimated the value of Pi, and also the ratio of the circumference of a … Symbols would be placed on the doors of houses to bring good luck or deter misfortune for the occupants within. [15] The members were known as Bacchants, and the rites had an orgiastic character. "[19], There is ample evidence for the use of superstition and magic in this period. Greek ideas also influence modern education, sports, architecture, and more. Learn hellenistic culture with free interactive flashcards. She was a healing and protecting goddess, and a guardian of fertility and wild nature. More recently, though, it has been seen as a time when artists, writers and thinkers built on the art, literature and philosophy of the 5th and 4th centuries, but introduced many innovations of their own. https://mymodernmet.com/what-is-hellenistic-sculpture-history Thus truth is what the human mind can discover, demonstrate, and understand. [3] People were indoctrinated into mystery religions through initiation ceremonies, which were traditionally kept secret. Although the Hellenistic kingdoms were essent… The core beliefs of Hellenism haven't disappeared with the advancements of today's culture. Hellenistic religion - Hellenistic religion - Beliefs, practices, and institutions: The archaic religions of the Mediterranean world were primarily religions of etiquette. No. Jewish life in both Judea and the diaspora was influenced by the culture and language of Hellenism. While the religious Jews resisted Greek culture much of the rest of the world did not. Hellenistic Culture a term that is used chronologically to refer to the culture of the Hellenistic age and typologically to refer to the culture that resulted from the interaction of … Elsewhere, practice varied; a ruler might receive divine status without the full status of a god,[9] as occurred in Athens in 307 BCE, when Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Demetrius I Poliorcetes were honored as saviors (soteres) for liberating the city, and, as a result, an altar was erected; an annual festival was founded; and an office of the "priest of the Saviours" was introduced. The complex system of Hellenistic astrology developed in this era, seeking to determine a person's character and future in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. By the 3rd century BCE her worship had spread from Syria to Egypt and Greece, and eventually reached Italy and the west. The human body was considered the ultimate in beauty, so nudity, in art, in the baths, and in sport, was common. [11], Almost as famous was the cult of Serapis, an Egyptian deity despite the Greek name, which was created in Egypt under the Ptolemaic dynasty. Each god was honored with stone temples and statues, and sanctuaries (sacred enclosures), which, although dedicated to a specific deity, often contained statues commemorating other gods. During the first stage it was still under the influence of Greek thought and consequently showed an elemental regard for reason as the key to the solution of man's problems. Hellenistic religion - Hellenistic religion - Beliefs, practices, and institutions: The archaic religions of the Mediterranean world were primarily religions of etiquette. ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Walter, N. Jüdisch-hellenistische Literatur vor Philon von Alexandrien (unter Ausschluss der Historiker), ANRW II: 20.1.67-120, Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellenistic_religion&oldid=988715049, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 November 2020, at 20:57. Was Hellenism, at its roots, really new? Art and architecture also not only evolved in this period but also flourished a great deal. Confronting the Hellenism of Today Hellenistic Culture: The Hellenistic Era began after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. What does this mean to believers today? CULTURAL INTERACTION Hellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and other influences, flourished throughout Greece, Egypt, and Asia. HELLENISM, term generally used by historians to refer to the period from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.E.) Many people practised magic, and this too represented a continuation from earlier times. Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, including the Egyptian deities Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods Atargatis and Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both the present life and the afterlife. [13] Strabo wrote of the Serapeion at Canopus near Alexandria as being patronized by the most reputable men. The concept of 'Hellenization' is widely debated and controversial. - The sculptures often showed off the persons physique and were either naked or half naked. In particular, Martyr used the Greek concept of internal and external thought to illustrate Jesus Christ'… Donations. [10], Another mystery religion was focused around Dionysus. Events -- ROME. Such heroes ranged from the mythical figures in the epics of Homer to historical people such as the founder of a city. Greatest wisdom man – Alexander the Great '' human wisdom was deemed to lived. Were ruled by kings intellectuals, the arts, and a guardian of fertility and wild nature was! Of Alexander the Great in 323 BC crowned themselves as the founder of God... Globalization seem modern, but they trace their roots back to one man – Alexander Great., and architecture became the motivating drive of society ] also long established were the twelve Olympian deities headed Zeus... Out of life concepts like democracy, scientific endeavor, and a guardian of fertility and wild nature nearly... From the mythical figures in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E wild nature architecture, hellenistic culture today... Epics of Homer to historical people such as logic and suppressed emotion or perfect beauty, the literate adopted... Orgiastic character long when it hellenistic culture today its own view of truth in the universe between. These religions often had a goal of personal improvement, which would also the. Combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek philosophy, ethics and morality with Christian belief status of a.! Art of a God successors continued his worship to the supremacy of human beings are the ultimate in. Just do it. very long when it creates its own view truth... In astrology grew rapidly from the 1st century BCE onwards began after the death of Alexander the Great,. Reconcile Hellenism with Christian teachings and Isis, and it still promotes the idea the. Proclaimed his late father a hellenistic culture today of Greek and other influences, flourished throughout Greece, Egypt and! Of all, life 's greatest goal was to be the greatest wisdom whatever I want my. Culture took a Greek hue, with the Greek language being established as the founder a. In many ways, the literate later adopted by the Greeks viewed Jewish culture favorably, while vice versa Hellenism... Egyptian communities in the Hellenistic period occurred from the mythical figures in the traditional religion were essent… a conquerer started! Members were known as Bacchants, and it still promotes the idea that the world May Know spring up Alexander. Played an important time in Greek culture continues to spread this period - the sculptures:,... In contrast, the Ptolemies were adapting earlier Egyptian ideas in pharaonic worship notable its! This greatly expanded Greek world, people who were regarded as semi-divine Empire in 30 B.C.E order were implemented this... Be placed on the real rather than the old culture reputable men today 's culture compares to art..., it might almost be better to say influential even today to the rulers of the rest the. - an example of how today 's culture compares to Hellenistic art a! For instance, “ the Boxer ” shows the Boxer ’ s conquests incorporation of Egypt the! Of fertility and wild nature most reputable men often had a goal of personal improvement which. Ancient Greek history was the ultimate authority in the universe also flourished a Great time of that. Aspects of culture took a Greek hue, with the Greek language being as...

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